References (Synthesis)

References (Synthesis)

  • Alberta Agriculture and Forestry. 2015. “Agricultural Carbon Offsets Activity Increases from 2007 to 2012.” https://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/cl13212/$file/OverviewJan22.pdf?OpenElement.

    Alexandratos, N., and J. Bruinsma. 2012. World Agriculture towards 2030/2050: The 2012 Revision. Rome: FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations).

    Ali, D.A., and K. Deininger. 2014. “Is There a Farm-Size Productivity Relationship in African Agriculture? Evidence from Rwanda.” Policy Research Working Paper 6770. Washington, DC: World Bank.

    AnimalChange. 2012. “Seventh Framework Programme, Theme 2: Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, and Biotechnologies, Deliverable 2.2: Preliminary Scenarios of the Developments in Agricultural Commodity Markets, Livestock Production Systems, and Land Use and Land Cover.” Brussels: AnimalChange.

    Arslan, A., N. McCarthy, L. Lipper, S. Asfaw, A. Cattaneo, and M. Kokwe. 2014. “Food Security and Adaptation Impacts of Potential Climate Smart Agricultural Practices in Zambia.” ESA Working Paper No. 14-13. Rome: FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations).

    Assunção, J., C. Gandour, and R. Rocha. 2012. “Deforestation Slowdown in the Legal Amazon: Prices or Policies?” Climate Policy Initiative Working Paper. Rio de Janeiro: Climate Policy Initiative.

    Atlin, G.N., J.E. Cairns, and B. Das. 2017. “Rapid Breeding and Varietal Replacement Are Critical to Adaptation of Cropping Systems in the Developing World to Climate Change.” Global Food Security 12: 31–37.

    Aune, J.B., and A. Bationo. 2008. “Agricultural Intensification in the Sahel: The Ladder Approach.” Agricultural Systems 98: 119–125.

    Barneze, A.S., A.M. Mazzetto, C.F. Zani, T. Misselbrook, and C.C. Cerri. 2014. “Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Soil Due to Urine Deposition by Grazing Cattle in Brazil.” Atmospheric Environment 92: 394–397.

    Bationo, A., A. Hartemink, O. Lungu, M. Naimi, P. Okoth, E. Smaling, and L. Thiombiano. 2006. “African Soils: Their Productivity and Profitability for Fertilizer Use.” Background paper for the Africa Fertilizer Summit, June 9–13, 2006, Abuja, Nigeria.

    Beintema, N., G.-J. Stads, K. Fuglie, P. Heisey. 2012. “ASTI Global Assessment of Agricultural R&D Spending: Developing Countries Accelerate Investment.” Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute, Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators, and Global Forum on Agricultural Research.

    Bellemare, M. 2015. “Contract Farming: What’s in It for Smallholder Farmers in Developing Countries?” Choices 30 (3): 1–4.

    Berners-Lee, M., C. Kennelly, R. Watson, and C.N. Hewitt. 2018. “Current Global Food Production Is Sufficient to Meet Human Nutritional Needs in 2050 Provided There Is Radical Societal Adaptation.” Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene 6 (1): 52.

    Bessau, P., S. Graham, and T. Christopherson (eds). 2018. Restoring Forests and Landscapes: The Key to a Sustainable Future. Vienna, Austria: Global Partnership on Forest and Landscape Restoration.

    Bittman, M. 2013. “How to Feed the World.” New York Times, October 14. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/15/opinion/how-to-feed-the-world.html.

    Bouvard, V., D. Loomis, K.Z. Guyton, Y. Grosse, F. El Ghissassi, L. Benbrahim-Tallaa, N. Guha, H. Mattock, and K. Straif. 2015. “Carcinogenicity of Consumption of Red and Processed Meat.Lancet Oncology, published online October 26, 2015. Paper prepared on behalf of the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph Working Group. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00444-1.

    Boyd, W., C. Stickler, A. Duchelle, F. Seymour, N. Bahar, and D. Rodriguez-Ward. 2018. “Jurisdictional Approaches to REDD+ and Low Emissions Development: Progress and Prospects.” Working paper. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.

    Bradford, E., R. Lee Baldwin, H. Blackburn, K.G. Cassman, P. Crosson, C. Delgado, J. Fadel, et al. 1999. “Animal Agriculture and Global Food Supply.” Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST), July.

    Branca, G., N. McCarthy, L. Lipper, and M.C. Jolejole. 2011. Climate-Smart Agriculture: A Synthesis of Empirical Evidence of Food Security and Mitigation Benefits from Improved Cropland Management. Rome: FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations).

    Brown, L. 2009. Plan B 4.0: Mobilizing to Save Civilization. New York: Norton.

    Bunderson, W.T. 2012. “Faidherbia albida: The Malawi Experience.” Lilongwe, Malawi: Total LandCare.

    Byrnes, R.C., J. Núñez, L. Arenas, I. Rao, C. Trujillo, C. Alvarez, J. Arango, et al. 2017. “Biological Nitrification Inhibition by Brachiaria Grasses Mitigates Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Bovine Urine Patches.” Soil Biology and Biochemistry 107: 156–163.

    CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2015. “Nutrition for Everyone: Protein.” Atlanta: CDC. http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/everyone/basics/protein.html.

    CGIAR Research Program on Roots, Tubers and Bananas. 2016. “New Technologies Make Cassava Processing More Efficient and Sustainable.” Blog. http://www.rtb.cgiar.org/blog/2016/02/10/new-technologies-make-cassava-processing-more-efficient-and-sustainable/.

    Craig, W.J., and A.R. Mangels. 2009. “Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian Diets.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 109 (7): 1266–1282.

    Craparo, A.C.W., P.J.A. Van Asten, P. Läderach, L.T.P. Jassogne, and S.W. Grab. 2015. “Coffea arabica Yields Decline in Tanzania Due to Climate Change: Global Implications.” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 207: 1–10.

    Dargie, G.C., S.L. Lewis, I.T. Lawson, E.T.A. Mitchard, S.E. Page, Y.E. Bocko, and S.A. Ifo. 2017. “Age, Extent and Carbon Storage of the Central Congo Basin Peatland Complex.” Nature 542: 86–90.

    Davis, S.J., and K. Caldeira. 2010. “Consumption-Based Accounting of CO2 Emissions.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107 (12): 5687–5692.

    Deininger K., D. Byerlee, J. Lindsay, A. Norton, H. Selod, and M. Stickler. 2011. Rising Global Interest in Farmland: Can It Yield Sustainable and Equitable Results? Washington, DC: World Bank.

    Doole, G.J., and U.H. Paragahawewa. 2011. “Profitability of Nitrification Inhibitors for Abatement of Nitrate Leaching on a Representative Dairy Farm in the Waikato Region of New Zealand.” Water 3 (4): 1031–1049.

    EIA (U.S. Energy Information Administration). 2012. Annual Energy Outlook 2012: With Projections to 2035. Washington, DC: EIA.

    EIA. 2015. “U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2014.” Washington, DC: EIA. https://www.eia.gov/environment/emissions/carbon/.

    Eitzinger, A., P. Läderach, A. Quiroga, A. Pantoja, and J. Gordon. 2011. “Future Climate Scenarios for Kenya’s Tea Growing Areas.” Decision and Policy Analyses (DAPA) group at Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). http://dapa.ciat.cgiar.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/Future-Climate-Scenarios-for-Kenyan-Farmers-Final-Report2.pdf.

    Erb, K., V. Gaube, F. Krausmann, C. Plutzar, A. Bondeau, and H. Haberl. 2007. “A Comprehensive Global 5 Min Resolution Land-Use Data Set for the Year 2000 Consistent with National Census Data.” Journal of Land Use and Science 2: 191–224.

    Estes, L., T. Searchinger, M. Spiegel, D. Tian, S. Sichinga, M. Mwale, L. Kehoe, T. Kuemmerle, A. Berven, N. Chaney, J. Sheffied, E.F. Wood, and K.K. Caylor. 2016. “Reconciling Agriculture, Carbon and Biodiversity in a Savannah Transformation Frontier.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 371 (1703): 20150316.

    FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 1989. Yield and Nutritional Value of the Commercially More Important Fish Species. Rome: FAO.

    FAO. 2011a. The State of the World’s Land and Water Resources for Food and Agriculture (SOLAW): Managing Systems at Risk. Rome and London: FAO and Earthscan.

    FAO. 2011b. Global Food Losses and Food Waste: Extent, Causes, and Prevention. Rome: FAO.

    FAO. 2012a. Global Forest Land-Use Change, 1990–2005. Rome: FAO.

    FAO. 2012b. State of Food and Agriculture: Investing in Agriculture for a Better Future. Rome: FAO.

    FAO. 2015. Food Wastage Footprint & Climate Change. Rome: FAO.

    FAO. 2016. AQUASTAT database. Rome: FAO.

    FAO. 2017a. FAOSTAT. Rome: FAO.

    FAO. 2017b. “Fishery and Aquaculture Statistics. Global Aquaculture Production 1950–2015 (FishStatJ.) Rome: FAO.

    FAO. 2018. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture: Meeting the Sustainable Development Goals. Rome: FAO.

    FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP, and WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization, International Fund for Agricultural Development, United Nations Children’s Fund, World Food Programme, and World Health Organization). 2017. The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2017: Building Resilience for Peace and Food Security. Rome: FAO.

    FAO, WHO, and UNU (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, World Health Organization, and United Nations University). 1985. Energy and Protein Requirements. Geneva: WHO.

    Federici, S., F. Tubiello, M. Salvatore, H. Jacobs, and J. Schmidhuber. 2015. “New Estimates of CO2 Forest Emissions and Removals: 1990–2015.” Forest Ecology and Management 352: 89–98.

    Figueres, C., H. Schellnhuber, G. Whiteman, A. Hobley, and S. Rahmstorf. 2017. “Three Years to Safeguard Our Climate.” Nature 546: 593–595.

    Foley, J.A., N. Ramankutty, K.A. Brauman, E.S. Cassidy, J.S. Gerber, M. Johnston, N.D. Mueller, et al. 2011. “Solutions for a Cultivated Planet.” Nature 478: 337–342.

    Fuglie, K., P. Heisey, J. King, C.E. Pray, K. Day-Rubenstein, D. Schimmelpfennig, S.L. Wang, and R. Karmarkar-Deshmukh. 2011. “Research Investments and Market Structure in the Food Processing, Agricultural Input, and Biofuel Industries Worldwide.” Economic Research Report 130. Washington, DC: USDA Economic Research Service.

    Galbally, I.E., M.C.P. Meyer, Y. Wang, C. Smith, and I.A. Weeks. 2010. “Nitrous Oxide Emissions from a Legume Pasture and the Influences of Liming and Urine Addition.” Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 136 (3–4): 262–272.

    Gerber, P.J., H. Steinfeld, B. Henderson, A. Mottet, C. Opio, J. Dijkman, A. Falcucci, and G. Tempio. 2013. Tackling Climate Change through Livestock: A Global Assessment of Emissions and Mitigation Opportunities. Rome: FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations).

    Gewin, V. 2018. “Rewetting the Swamp: Indonesia’s Bold Plan.” Scientific American, July 31. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/rewetting-the-swamp-indonesia-rsquo-s-bold-plan/.

    Gibbs, H.K., J. Munger, J. L’Roe, P. Barreto, R. Pereira, M. Christie, T. Amaral, and N.F. Walker. 2016. “Did Ranchers and Slaughterhouses Respond to Zero‐Deforestation Agreements in the Brazilian Amazon?” Conservation Letters: 9: 32–42.

    Giller, K.E., J.A. Andersson, M. Corbeels, J. Kirkegaard, D. Mortensen, O. Erenstein, and B. Vanlauwe. 2015. “Beyond Conservation Agriculture.” Frontiers in Plant Science 6 (37).

    Gingold, B., A. Rosenbarger, Y.K.D. Muliastra, F. Stolle, M. Sudana, M.D.M. Manessa, A. Murdimanto, et al. 2012. How to Identify Degraded Land for Sustainable Palm Oil in Indonesia. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.

    Goodrich, A., T. James, and M. Woodhouse. 2012. “Residential, Commercial, and Utility-scale Photovoltaic System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities.” Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

    Green Climate Fund. 2017. “Status of Pledges and Contributions Made to the Green Climate Fund.” Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea: Green Climate Fund. https://www.greenclimate.fund/documents/20182/24868/Status_of_Pledges.pdf/eef538d3-2987-4659-8c7c-5566ed6afd19.

    Griffith, R. 2000. “How Important Is Business R&D for Economic Growth and Should the Government Subsidise It?” Briefing note no. 12. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies.

    Haberl H., K.H. Erb, F. Krausmann, V. Gaube, A. Bondeau, C. Plutzar, S. Gingrich, et al. 2007. “Quantifying and Mapping the Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production in Earth’s Terrestrial Ecosystems.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104: 12942–12947.

    Hanson, H., K. Buckingham, S. DeWitt, and L. Laestadius. 2015. The Restoration Diagnostic: A Method for Developing Forest Landscape Restoration Strategies by Rapidly Assessing the Status of Key Success Factors. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.

    Harper, S. 2012. “People and the Planet.” Presentation at Royal Society, London, April. Oxford: University of Oxford.

    Hengl, T., and H. Reuter. 2009. “Topsoil Organic Carbon Based on the HWSD [Data file].” Wageningen, The Netherlands: ISRIC World Soil Information.

    Herrero, M., P. Havlík, H. Valin, A. Notenbaert, M.C. Rufino, P.K. Thornton, M. Blümmel, et al. 2013. “Biomass Use, Production, Feed Efficiencies, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Global Livestock Systems.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 (52): 20888–20893.

    Hirsch, A.I., W.S. Little, R.A. Houghton, N.A. Scott, and J.D. White. 2004. “The Net Carbon Flux Due to Deforestation and Forest Re-growth in the Brazilian Amazon Using a Process-Based Model.” Global Change Biology 10 (5): 908–924.

    Holt-Gimenez, E. 2012. “We Already Grow Enough Food for 10 Billion People—and Still Can’t End Hunger.” Huffington Post, May 2. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/eric-holt-gimenez/world-hunger_b_1463429.html.

    Houghton, R.E. 2008. “Carbon Flux to the Atmosphere from Land-use Changes: 1850–2005.” In: TRENDS: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Oak Ridge, TN: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

    Hristov, A.N., J. Oh, J.L. Firkins, J. Dijkstra, E. Kebreab, G. Waghorn, H.P.S. Makkar, et al. 2014. “Mitigation of Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Animal Operations: I. A Review of Enteric Methane Mitigation Options.” Journal of Animal Sciences 91: 5045–5069.

    Hristov, A.N., J. Oh, F. Giallongo, T.W. Frederick, M.T. Harper, H.L. Weeks, A.F. Branco, et al. 2015. “An Inhibitor Persistently Decreased Enteric Methane Emissions from Dairy Cows with No Negative Effect on Milk Production.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112 (34): 10663–10668.

    IEA (International Energy Agency). 2008. Energy Technology Perspectives: Scenarios and Strategies to 2050. Paris: IEA.

    IEA. 2012. World Energy Outlook 2012. Paris: IEA.

    IEA. 2016. World Energy Outlook 2016. Paris: IEA.

    IEA. 2017. International Energy Outlook 2017. https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/aeo/data/browser/#/?id=1-IEO2017&&sourcekey=0. Last accessed November 2018.

    IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, vol. 4, Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use. Geneva: IPCC.

    IPCC. 2014. Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change: Summary for Policymakers and Technical Summary. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva: IPCC.

    Itoh, M., S. Sudo, S. Mori, H. Saito, T. Yoshida, Y. Shiratori, S. Suga, et al. 2011. “Mitigation of Methane Emissions from Paddy Fields by Prolonging Midseason Drainage.” Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 141: 359–372.

    Jackson, R. 2015. “A Credible Commitment: Reducing Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, 2003–2012.” Case study for Innovations for Successful Societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University.

    Jiang Y., K.J. van Groenigen, S. Hung, B.A. Hungate, C. van Kessel, S. Hu, J. Zhang, et al. 2017. “Higher Yields and Lower Methane Emissions with New Rice Cultivars.“ Global Change Biology 233: 47828–4738.

    Johnson, J.A., C. F. Runge, B. Senauer, J. Foley, and S. Polasky. 2014. “Global Agriculture and Carbon Trade-Offs.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111: 12342–12347.

    Jones, P.G., and P.K. Thornton. 2015. “Representative Soil Profiles for the Harmonized World Soil Database at Different Spatial Resolutions for Agricultural Modelling Applications.” Agricultural Systems 139: 93–99.

    Joshi, E., D. Kumar, V. Lal, V. Nepalia, P. Gautam, and A.K. Vyas. 2013. “Management of Direct Seeded Rice for Enhanced Resource-Use Efficiency.” Plant Knowledge Journal 2 (3): 119.

    Kirkby, C.A., A.E. Richardson, L.J. Wade, J.W. Passioura, G.D. Batten, C. Blanchard, and J.A. Kirkegaard. 2014. “Nutrient Availability Limits Carbon Sequestration in Arable Soils.” Soil Biology & Biochemistry 68: 402–402.

    Kolka, R., S.D. Bridgham, and C.L. Ping. 2016. “Soils of Peatlands: Histosols and Gelisols.” In Wetlands Soils: Genesis, Hydrology, Landscapes and Classification, edited by C.B. Craft and M.J. Vepraskas. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

    Kummu, M., H. de Moel, M. Porkka, S. Siebert, O. Varis, and P.J. Ward. 2012. “Lost Food, Wasted Resources: Global Food Supply Chain Losses and Their Impacts on Freshwater, Cropland, and Fertiliser Use.” Science of the Total Environment 438: 477–489.

    Land Matrix Database. n.d. http://www.landmatrix.org/en/about/. Accessed July 16, 2016.

    Larson, D., A. Dinar, and J.A. Frisbie. 2012. Agriculture and the Clean Development Mechanism. Washington, DC: World Bank.

    Larson, D., K. Otsuka, T. Matsumoto, and T. Kilic. 2014. “Should African Rural Development Strategies Depend on Smallholder Farms? An Exploration of the Inverse-Productivity Hypothesis.” Agricultural Economics 45: 355–365.

    Laurance, W.F., G.R. Clements, S. Sloan, C.S. O’Connell, N.D. Mueller, M. Goosem, O. Venter, et al. 2014. “A Global Strategy for Road Building.” Nature 513: 229–232.

    Le Quéré, C., R.J. Andres, T. Boden, T. Conway, R.A. Houghton, J.I. House, G. Marland, et al. 2012. “The Global Carbon Budget, 1959–2011.” Earth System Science Data 5: 165–185.

    Lipinski, B., C. Hanson, J. Lomax, L. Kitinoja, R. Waite, and T. Searchinger. 2013. “Reducing Food Loss and Waste.” Working Paper, Installment 2 of Creating a Sustainable Food Future. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.

    Lobell, D.B., M.B. Burke, C. Tebaldi, M.D. Mastrandrea, W.P. Falcon, and R.L. Naylor. 2008. “Prioritizing Climate Change Adaptation Needs for Food Security in 2030.” Science 319 (5863): 607–610.

    Lowder, S.K., J. Skoet, and T. Raney. 2016. “The Number, Size, and Distribution of Farms, Smallholder Farms, and Family Farms Worldwide.” World Development 87: 16–29.

    MarketsAndMarkets. 2015. Controlled-Release Fertilizers Market by Type (Condensation Products of Urea, Coated & Encapsulated Fertilizers, and N-Stabilizers), Crop Type (Cereals & Oilseeds, Turf & Ornamentals, and Fruits & Vegetables) & Region—Global Trends and Forecast to 2020. Pune, India: MarketsAndMarkets.

    MarketsAndMarkets. 2017. Nitrogenous Fertilizers Market by Type (Urea, Ammonium Nitrate, Ammonium Sulfate, and Calcium Ammonium Nitrate), Form (Liquid and Dry), Mode of Application (Soil, Foliar, and Fertigation), Crop Type, and Region—Global Forecast to 2022. Pune, India: MarketsAndMarkets.

    Martínez-Fernández, G., L. Abecia, A. Arco, G. Cantalapiedra-Hijar, A.I. Martín-García, E. Molina-Alcaide, M. Kindermann, et al. 2014. “Effects of Ethyl-3-Nitrooxy Propionate and 3-Nitrooxypropanol on Ruminal Fermentation, Microbial Abundance, and Methane Emissions in Sheep.” Journal of Dairy Science 97 (6): 3790–3799.

    Mazzetto, A.M., A.S. Barneze, B.J. Feigle, J.W. van Groenigen, O. Oenema, C.A.M. de Klein, and C.C. Cerri. 2015. “Use of the Nitrification Inhibitor Dicyandiamide (DCD) Does Not Mitigate N2O Emissions from Bovine Urine Patches under Oxisol in Northwest Brazil.” Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 101: 83–92.

    Meinshausen, M., N. Meinshausen, W. Hare, S.C. Raper, K. Frieler, R. Knutti, D.J. Frame, and M.R. Allen. 2009. “Greenhouse-Gas Emission Targets for Limiting Global Warming to 2 Degrees C.” Nature 458: 1158–1162.

    Nabuurs, G.J., O. Masera, K. Andrasko, P. Benitez-Ponce, R. Boer, M. Dutschke, E. Elsiddig, et al. 2007. “Forestry.” In Climate Change 2007: Mitigation, edited by B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, and L.A. Meyer. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    NAS (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine). 2016. Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

    Nepstad, D., D. McGrath, C. Stickler, A. Alencar, A. Azevedo, B. Swette, T. Bezerra, et al. 2014. “Slowing Amazon Deforestation through Public Policy and Interventions in Beef and Soy Supply Chains.” Science 344 (6188): 1118–1123.

    Notess, L., P. Veit, I. Monterroso, Andiko, E. Sulie, A.M. Larson, A-S. Gindroz, et al. 2018. The Scramble for Land Rights. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.

    NRC (National Research Council). 2011. Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

    OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2012. OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050: The Consequences of Inaction. Paris: OECD.

    OECD. 2016. Agricultural Support. Database. OECD Data. http://www.oecd.org/tad/agricultural-policies/producerandconsumersupportestimatesdatabase.htm.

    Ortiz, R., K.D. Sayre, B. Govaerts, R. Gupta, G.V. Subbarao, T. Ban, D. Hodson, et al. 2008. “Climate Change: Can Wheat Beat the Heat?” Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 126 (1–2): 46–58.

    Padhee, A. 2018. “DBT in Fertilizers: Game Changing Reforms.” Blog. Times of India, May 4. https://blogs.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/voices/dbt-in-fertilizers-game-changing-reforms/.

    Paul, G.L. 1989. “Dietary Protein Requirements of Physically Active Individuals.” Sports Medicine 8 (3): 154–176.

    Pearce, F. 2012. The Land Grabbers: The New Fight over Who Owns the Earth. Boston: Beacon.

    Pelster, D.E., B. Gisore, J. Goopy, D. Korir, J.K. Koske, M.C. Rufino, and K. Butterbach-Bahl. 2016. “Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Cattle Excreta on an East African Grassland.” Journal of Environmental Quality 45 (5): 1531–1539.

    Place, F., 2009. “Land Tenure and Agricultural Productivity in Africa: A Comparative Analysis of Economic Theory, Empirical Results, and Policy Statements.” World Development 37: 1326–1336.

    Porter, J.R., L. Xie, A.J. Challinor, K. Cochrane, S.M. Howden, M.M. Iqbal, D.B. Lobell, and M.I. Travasso. 2014. “Food Security and Food Production Systems.” In Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects, edited by C.B. Field, V.R. Barros, D.J. Dokken, K.J. Mach, M.D. Mastrandrea, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, et al. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Powlson, D.S., C. Stirling, M. Jat, B. Gerard, C. Palm, P. Sanchez, and K. Cassman. 2014. “Limited Potential of No-Till Agriculture for Climate Change Mitigation.” Nature Climate Change 4 (8): 678–683.

    Powlson, D.S., C.M. Stirling, C. Thierfelder, R.P. White, and M.L. Jat. 2016. “Does Conservation Agriculture Deliver Climate Change Mitigation through Soil Carbon Sequestration in Tropical Agro-ecosystems?” Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 220: 164–174.

    Pretty, J.N., A.D. Noble, D. Bossio, J. Dixon, R.E. Hine, F.W.T.P. de Vries, and J.I.L. Morison. 2006. “Resource-Conserving Agriculture Increases Yields in Developing Countries.” Environmental Science & Technology 40 (4): 1114–1119.

    Ranganathan, J., D. Vennard, R. Waite, B. Lipinksi, T. Searchinger, P. Dumas, A. Forslund, et al. 2016. “Shifting Diets for a Sustainable Food Future.” Installment 11 of Creating a Sustainable Food Future. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.

    Ray, D.K., and J.A. Foley. 2013. “Increasing Global Crop Harvest Frequency: Recent Trends and Future Directions.” Environmental Research Letters 8 (4): 044041.

    Reij, C., G. Tappan, and M. Smale. 2009. Agroenvironmental Transformation in the Sahel: Another Kind of Green Revolution. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.

    Reij, C., and R. Winterbottom. 2015. Scaling Up Regreening: Six Steps to Success—A Practical Approach to Forest and Landscape Restoration. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.

    REN21. 2017. Renewables 2017 Global Status Report. Paris: REN21 Secretariat.

    Reynolds, C.K., D.J. Humphries, P. Kirton, M. Kindermann, S. Duval, and W. Steinberg. 2014. “Effects of 3-Nitrooxypropanol on Methane Emission, Digestion, and Energy and Nitrogen Balance of Lactating Dairy Cows.” Journal of Dairy Science 97 (6): 3777–3789.

    Roberts, T., and R. Welkmans. 2016. “Roadmap to Where? Is the ‘$100 Billion by 2020’ Pledge from Copenhagen Still Realistic?” Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

    Romero-Perez, A., E.K. Okine, S.M. McGinn, L.L. Guan, M. Oba, S.M. Duval, M. Kindermann, and K.A. Beauchemin. 2015. “Sustained Reduction in Methane Production from Long-Term Addition of 3-Nitrooxypropanol to a Beef Cattle Diet.” Journal of Animal Science 93 (4): 1780–1791.

    Saini, S.S. 2013. “Pumpset Energy Efficiency: Agriculture Demand Side Management Program.” International Journal of Agriculture and Food Science Technology 4 (5): 493–500.

    Sanderson, B.M., B.C. O’Neill, and C. Tebaldi. 2016. “What Would It Take to Achieve the Paris Temperature Targets?” Geophysical Research Letters 43 (13): 7133–7142.

    Sathaye, J., W. Makundi, L. Dale, P. Chan, and K. Andrasko. 2005. “GHG Mitigation Potential, Costs and Benefits in Global Forests: A Dynamic Partial Equilibrium Approach.” Energy Journal 27: 127–162.

    Sathaye, J., K. Andrasko, and P. Chan. 2011. “Emissions Scenarios, Costs, and Implementation Considerations of REDD Programs.” Environment and Development Economics. doi:10.1017/S1355770X11000052.

    Scarborough, P., P.N. Appleby, A. Mizdrak, A.D.M. Briggs, R.C. Travis, K.E. Bradbury, and T.J. Key. 2014. “Dietary Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Meat-Eaters, Fish-Eaters, Vegetarians and Vegans in the UK.” Climatic Change 125: 179–192.

    Schonweger O., A. Heinimann, M. Epprecht, J. Lu, and P. Thalongsengchanh. 2012. Concessions and Leases in the Lao PDR: Taking Stock of Land Investments. Lao PDR: Geographica Bernensia.

    Searchinger, T., C. Hanson, J. Ranganathan, B. Lipinski, R. Waite, R. Winterbottom, A. Dinshaw, and R. Heimlich. 2013. Creating a Sustainable Food Future: Interim Findings. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.

    Searchinger, T., and R. Heimlich. 2015. “Avoiding Bioenergy Competition for Food Crops and Land.” Installment 9 of Creating a Sustainable Food Future. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.

    Searchinger, T., T. Beringer, and A. Strong. 2017. “Does the World Have Low-Carbon Bioenergy Potential from the Dedicated Use of Land?” Energy Policy 110: 434–446.

    Selman, M., and S. Greenhalgh. 2009. “Eutrophication: Sources and Drivers of Nutrient Pollution.” WRI Policy Note. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.

    Semenov, M., R. Mitchell, A.P. Whitmore, M.J. Hawkesford, M. Parry, and P.R. Shewry. 2012. “Shortcomings in Wheat Yield Predictions.” Nature Climate Change 2 (6): 380–382.

    Shitumbanuma, V. 2012. “Analyses of Crop Trials under Faidherbia albida.” Lusaka: Conservation Farming Unit, University of Zambia.

    Siddique, I., V.L. Engel, J.A. Parrotta, D. Lamb, G.B. Nardoto, J.P.H.B. Ometto, L.A. Martinelli, and S. Schmidt. 2008. “Dominance of Legume Trees Alters Nutrient Relations in Mixed Species Forest Restoration Plantings within Seven Years.” Biogeochemistry 88 (1): 89–101.

    Siebert, S., F.T. Portmann, and P. Doll. 2010. “Global Patterns of Cropland Use Intensity.” Remote Sensing 2 (7): 1625–1643.

    Smith, P., M. Bustamante, H. Ahammad, H. Clark, H. Dong, E.A. Elsiddig, H. Haberl, et al. 2014. “Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU).” In Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change—Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, et al. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Sordi, A., J. Dieckow, C. Bayer, M. Ameral, J. Thiago, J. Acordi, and A. de Moraes. 2014. “Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Urine and Dung Patches in a Subtropical Brazilian Pastureland.” Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 190: 94–103.

    Stern, N. 2006. The Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change. London: Government of the United Kingdom.

    Stevens, C., R. Winterbottom, J. Springer, and K. Reytar. 2014. Securing Rights, Combatting Climate Change: How Strengthening Community Forest Rights Mitigates Climate Change. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.

    Su, J., C. Hu, X. Yan, Y. Jin, Z. Chen, Q. Guan, Y. Wang, et al. 2015. “Expression of Barley SUSIBA2 Transcription Factor Yields High-Starch Low-Methane Rice.” Nature 523: 62–606.

    Sumaila, R., A. Khan, A. Dyck, R. Watson, G. Munro, P. Tyedmers, and D. Pauly. 2010. “A Bottom-Up Re-estimation of Global Fisheries Subsidies.” Journal of Bioeconomics 12: 201–25.

    Sumaila, R., W. Cheung, A. Dyck, K. Gueye, L. Huang, V. Lam, D. Pauly, et al. 2012. “Benefits of Rebuilding Global Marine Fisheries Outweigh Costs.” PLoS ONE 7 (7): e40542.

    Sumaila, R., and U. Rashid. 2016. “Trade Policy Options for Sustainable Oceans and Fisheries: E15 Expert Group on Oceans, Fisheries and the Trade System—Policy Options Paper.” Geneva: E15 Initiative, International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, and World Economic Forum.

    Tacon, A.G.J., and M. Metian. 2008. “Global Overview on the Use of Fish Meal and Fish Oil in Industrially Compounded Aquafeeds: Trends and Future Prospects.” Aquaculture 285: 146–158.

    Teixeira, E.I., G. Fischer, H. van Velthuizen, C. Walter, and F. Ewert. 2013. “Global Hot-Spots of Heat Stress on Agricultural Crops Due to Climate Change.” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 170: 206–215.

    UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division). 2017. World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision. New York: United Nations.

    UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). 2012. The Emissions Gap Report 2012. Nairobi: UNEP.

    UNEP. 2013. The Emissions Gap Report 2013. Nairobi: UNEP.

    UNEP. 2017. The Emissions Gap Report 2017. Nairobi: UNEP.

    UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). 2015. https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-paris-agreement/the-paris-agreement.

    USDA/ERS (United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service). 2015. “Meat Price Spreads.” http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/meat-price-spreads.aspx.

    van Groenigen, J.W., C. van Kessel, B.A. Hungate, O. Oenema, D.S. Powlson, and K.J. van Groenigen. 2017. “Sequestering Soil Organic Carbon: A Nitrogen Dilemma.” Environmental Science & Technology 51: 5738–4739.

    Vanlauwe, B., J. Chianu, K.E. Giller, R. Merckx, U. Mokwunye, P. Pypers, K. Shepherd, et al. 2010. “Integrated Soil Fertility Management: Operational Definition and Consequences for Implementation and Dissemination.” 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World, Brisbane, Australia, August 1–6.

    van Vuuren, D. 2011. “The Representative Concentration Pathways: An Overview.” Climatic Change 109: 5–31.

    Verhage, F., L. Cramer, P. Thornton, and B. Campbell. 2018. “Climate Risk Assessment and Agricultural Value Chain Prioritisation for Malawi and Zambia.” CCAFS Working Paper no. 228. Wageningen, The Netherlands: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS).

    Walpole, S.C., D. Prieto-Merino, P. Edwards, J. Cleland, G. Stevens, and I. Roberts. 2012. “The Weight of Nations: An Estimation of Adult Human Biomass.” BMC Public Health 12: 439.

    Ward, G.N., K.B. Kelly, and J.W. Hollier. 2016. “Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Dung, Urine and Dairy Pond Sludge Applied to Pasture. 1. Nitrous Oxide Emissions.” Animal Production Science 58 (6): 1087–1093.

    West, P.C., H.K. Gibbs, C. Monfreda, J. Wagner, C.C. Barford, S.R. Carpenter, and J.A. Foley. 2010. “Trading Carbon for Food: Global Comparison of Carbon Stocks vs. Crop Yields on Agricultural Land.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107: 19645–19648.

    Wetlands International. 2017. “Restoring Peatlands in Russia—For Fire Prevention and Climate Change Mitigation.” http://russia.wetlands.org/WhatWeDo/Allourprojects/RestoringpeatlandsinRussia/Projectresults/Projectresults2016/tabid/3893/language/en-US/Default.aspx.

    Williams, S.D., and H. Fritschel. 2012. “Farming Smarter.” IFPRI Insights 2 (2). Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.

    Wirsenius, S. 2000. Human Use of Land and Organic Materials: Modeling the Turnover of Biomass in the Global Food System. PhD thesis. Göteborg, Sweden: Chalmers University of Technology and Göteborg University.

    Wirsenius, S., C. Azar, and G. Berndes. 2010. “How Much Land Is Needed for Global Food Production under Scenarios of Dietary Changes and Livestock Productivity Increases in 2030?” Agricultural Systems 103 (9): 621–638.

    World Bank. 2008. World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Development. Washington, DC: World Bank.

    World Bank. 2012. Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4⁰ C Warmer World Must Be Avoided. Washington, DC: World Bank.

    World Bank. 2017a. Databank: “Mortality Rate, Under-5 (per 1,000 Live Births).” Washington, DC: World Bank. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.DYN.MORT.

    World Bank. 2017b. The Sunken Billions Revisited: Progress and Challenges in Global Marine Fisheries. Washington, DC: World Bank.

    World Bank. 2017c. “Databank: Research and Development Expenditure (% of GDP).” Washington, DC: World Bank. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/GB.XPD.RSDV.GD.ZS.

    World Bank. 2017d. “Databank: Agriculture, Value Added (constant 2010 US$).” Washington, DC: World Bank. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.KD.

    Wormington, J. 2016. “The Human Cost of Environmental Protection in Côte d’Ivoire.” Dispatches, September 15. New York: Human Rights Watch.

    WRI (World Resources Institute). 2017. “Carbon Emissions from Peat Drainage on Plantations.” Washington, DC: WRI. http://climate.globalforestwatch.org.

    Zhang, X., E. Davidson, D. Mauzerall, T. Searchinger, P. Dumas, and Y. Shen. 2015. “Managing Nitrogen for Sustainable Development.Nature 528: 51–59.

Download Entire References